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Gas fire extinguishing system manufacturers: Why did China set up an emergency management department?

Edit:Jiangsu Yongtai Fire Engineering Co., Ltd.UpDate:2019-12-06

Based on domestic and foreign experience, the institutional reform explicitly proposed the establishment of an emergency management department, which is conducive to solving the problem of disaster risk information islands and improving the risk management ability of emergencies; it is beneficial to optimize China's emergency plan system and promote plan drill To improve emergency preparedness capabilities; it is conducive to integrating emergency rescue teams such as fire protection, various types of disaster relief armed police, and production safety, and to improve emergency handling capabilities.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, our government attaches great importance to disaster prevention and mitigation, and has established corresponding institutions. In the field of natural disasters, China established the Central Flood Control Headquarters in 1950, and renamed it as the National Flood and Drought Relief Headquarters in 1992; after the Daxinganling Forest Fire in 1987, China established the Central Forest Fire Control Headquarters (cancelled in 1998) and was established in 2006 China's Forest Fire Prevention Command; China established the China International Decade for Disaster Reduction in 1989, renamed it China International Disaster Reduction Committee in 2000, and China Disaster Reduction Committee in 2005; In terms of production safety, in the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, China formulated the principle of "safety for production and production must be safe." ”As the core" emergency plan "for accident prevention; in 2003, the State Council Work Safety Committee was established. In the field of public health, the Central Epidemic Prevention Committee was established in 1952, and was renamed the Patriotic Health Campaign Committee in 1957. During the ten years of turmoil, the Patriotic Health Campaign suffered setbacks. In 1978, the Central Patriotic Health Campaign Committee was re-established.

With the development of economy and society, especially the rapid advancement of industrialization, informatization and urbanization, the derivative effects of disasters and other emergencies have exceeded the response capabilities of traditional department-led emergency management systems. After experiencing the SARS incident in 2003, on the basis of making full use of the resources of the existing government administrative agency, China's emergency response office relying on the government office (room) played a pivotal role, coordinating several coordinating bodies and A new comprehensive and coordinated emergency management system for the joint conference system has been initially established. In April 2006, the State Council's Emergency Management Office (the State Council's General Duty Office) was set up to undertake the routine work of the State Council's emergency management and the State Council's overall duty work, perform on-duty emergency response, information aggregation, and comprehensive coordination functions, and play a pivotal role.

The "Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China", which came into effect on November 1, 2007, clearly stipulates that China has established an emergency management system that focuses on unified leadership, comprehensive coordination, classified management, hierarchical responsibility, and territorial management. The incidents are mainly divided into four categories, and the corresponding lead departments are stipulated: natural disasters are mainly managed by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Water Resources, the Earthquake Administration, etc., and accident disasters are managed by the State Administration of Work Safety, etc., and public health emergencies are managed by The Ministry of Health takes the lead in managing, and the social security incidents are led by the Ministry of Public Security and coordinated by the General Office of the State Council. Various departments and localities have also set up specialized emergency management agencies, improving the emergency management system, and further improving professional emergency command and coordination agencies.

At present, China's emergency management is facing a new situation. First, new risks are increasing. The risks of accidents, hazards of new technologies, and the risks of underground space in cities are constantly emerging. The second is to strengthen the complexity of events. A small-scale infectious disease can form a worldwide infectious event and cause macroeconomic decline; a freezing disaster can cause a large-scale power outage, and a large-scale power outage can cause the entire city and regional society to be paralyzed to a certain extent A heavy rain can turn the city into an ocean; a safety accident can interrupt the entire industry chain under certain conditions. The third is the emergence of emergencies from domestic to overseas. With the acceleration of China ’s “going global” pace, the number of Chinese immigration and entry has increased rapidly, reaching 598 million in 2017; overseas emergencies affecting domestication, such as the Malaysia Airlines MH370 incident and the Libyan evacuation incident, not only need to be handled overseas, Moreover, domestic disposal tasks are also very onerous. Fourth, emergency management has shifted from response to prevention. Due to the rapid development of technology and the continuous change of social forms, human society has entered a risk society, and more conscious prevention of various risks has become an important content of emergency management.

Facing these new challenges, China's past emergency management has the following problems: First, in risk prevention, the data “department wall” and “industry wall” are serious, the risk information is incomplete, and the risk prevention capacity is relatively weak. Second, in emergency preparedness, various emergency resources have problems of division of departments and low-level repetitive construction. There is also a problem of insufficient coordination between the management of specialized departments and the management of territories. The third is the lack of pertinence and practicality in the construction of the emergency plan system, especially the connection of the plan is difficult. Fourth, in the handling of incidents, the previous system of managing single disasters by the leading departments was difficult to cope with the complex nature of the incident. Although the departments within the departments commanded smoothly and had strong ability to complete tasks independently, there was insufficient coordination and coordination between departments; power and responsibility The configuration is not clear enough, the responsibilities overlap and the management disconnection exists to varying degrees; the power is divided, and the incident handling command coordination is not smooth. For example, in the response to events such as the freezing rain and snow disasters in the south and the Wenchuan earthquake, China's emergency management capabilities are obviously extremely unbalanced with the people's growing needs for a better life, and a more unified emergency management system is needed in the new era.

From an international perspective, there are currently three types of emergency management systems in developed countries.

The first is an independent and unified emergency management department. For example, after the "September 11th" incident, the United States established an independent, specialized and comprehensive "bundled federal emergency agency"-the Department of Homeland Security, which not only integrated more than 40 coast guards, transportation security bureaus, secretarial agencies, etc. A federal agency, and has also taken over federal and state and local government coordination responsibilities. In 1994, Russia established the Ministry of Emergency Situations, which is a federal executive authority. It is Russia's core organization for handling emergencies. It is one of the five powerful departments that are equal to the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The second is the semi-powerful sector. For example, the French Ministry of the Interior's Citizen Protection and Crisis Management Agency is responsible for emergency management of French emergencies, has the responsibility of coordinating various ministries, and has emergency management backbones such as fire protection, police and gendarmerie. The German Ministry of the Interior is responsible for crisis management and disaster relief in Germany. Related to disaster relief are the Crisis Management Division, the Civil Protection and Disaster Relief Agency and the Technical Rescue Agency. The Department of Crisis Management is mainly responsible for policy matters in the field of crisis management in China. The Citizenship Protection and Disaster Relief Agency is the daily management agency for emergency management and disaster relief. The Technical Rescue Agency is mainly responsible for international and domestic on-site rescue.

The third is a comprehensive and coordinated emergency management system. For example, the United Kingdom does not have a central government department responsible for emergency management, and emergency management implements a hierarchically-responsible system with local leadership and multi-department coordination. At the central level, the Prime Minister is the executive head of emergency management. Relevant agencies include the Cabinet Emergency Response Team, the National Emergency Committee, the National Emergency Secretariat and various government departments. Among them, the Cabinet Emergency Response Team is the government's high-level crisis management agency, but it is only activated when facing a very serious crisis or emergency; the National Emergency Committee is composed of ministers and other officials, and provides advice to the Cabinet Emergency Response Team, and Responsible for overseeing the response of central government departments in emergency situations; the Secretariat of National Emergency Affairs is mainly responsible for daily management of emergency management and coordination of inter-departmental and inter-agency emergency operations in emergency situations, and provides the emergency response team of the cabinet and the National Emergency Affairs Committee Support; government departments are responsible for emergency management within their respective areas, and the relevant departments of the Ministry of Health and other related departments have established special emergency management agencies.

Compared with developed countries in the West, in terms of systems, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics has a natural institutional advantage in responding to emergencies than the western parliamentary or federal systems. However, because China's emergency capabilities are scattered in various departments, the institutional advantages have not been revealed; In terms of the degree of social development, the developed western countries have completed urbanization, and the social transformation has basically been completed. However, China is still in the process of urbanization, and the contradictions between people, people, and nature are relatively prominent. Technical emergencies are facing high and frequent risks. Centralized emergency management departments are required to prevent and respond to risks. Our country has the largest population in the world, the second largest economy in the world, and the vast land area, but natural disasters occur frequently. As China is still a developing country, accidents and disasters occur from time to time, and the task of protecting the lives and property of the people is extremely onerous. Therefore, a unified emergency management system is even more needed.

Based on domestic and foreign experience, the institutional reform explicitly proposed the establishment of an emergency management department, which is conducive to solving the problem of disaster risk information islands, conducting comprehensive disaster risk management, and improving the risk management capabilities of emergencies; it is also helpful to optimize China's emergency response. The plan system and the promotion of plan drills, coordinating the construction of emergency forces and material reserves and unified dispatching during disaster relief, organizing the construction of the disaster relief system, and improving emergency preparedness capabilities; conducive to the integration of emergency rescue teams such as fire protection, various types of disaster armed police and safety production, Comprehensive standing emergency backbone forces to improve emergency handling capacity.